Jessica was kept busy synthesizing this summer….
Development of Heterocyclic Catholyte Molecules for Application in Redox Flow Batteries; Jessica D. Scott and Thomas F. Guarr
Accompanying the increased discussion over climate change and global warming in the news, there is a widespread desire to research and design stable and cost-effective methods to store renewable energy on a large scale. One possible answer to the energy crisis may be found in the use of redox flow batteries. Redox flow batteries have the ability to convey chemical energy, generated from electrochemically reversible reactions, into electrical energy which could then be stored for later use. Research suggests that heterocyclic derivatives can be paired with extended viologen systems to produce very desirable electrochemical properties.
Jessie graduated from Hope College this spring with an ACS Certification Chemistry degree, spent her summer with us, and is continuing on to work in the Chicago area. Best wishes for your future, Jessie!
Taylor performed research on electroactive materials for electrode surfaces this summer…
Synthesis of Bispyridine Derivatives for Chemically Modified Electrodes; Taylor Grace, Dr. Thomas Guarr
Attachment of electroactive materials to an electrode surface can result in the formation of modified electrodes suitable for applications in displays, electrocatalytic devices, or organic batteries. Pyridinium compounds are readily and reversibly reduced, and previous work has demonstrated that bispyridine species are especially stable in both their oxidized and reduced states. The objective of this project is to prepare several different bispyridinium compounds that can be electrochemically polymerized or covalently attached to an electrode surface. The resultant chemically modified electrodes will be characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods.
Taylor is pursuing a degree in chemistry with a minor in biology at Western Michigan University. We loved having her energy with us this summer and we wish her all the best when she returns to WMU.
James continued our insights into alternatives to platinum as an oxygen reduction catalyst…
Investigation of Metal(II) Tetradiphenylaminophthalocyanines for Oxygen Reduction Catalysis in Fuel Cells; James A. Wortman, Thomas F. Guarr
Catalytic oxygen reduction (OR) is an important reaction in fuel cell design. Platinum has been used as an OR catalyst, but its high cost has made large-scale applications impractical. The purpose of this study was to investigate metal(II) tetra(diphenylamino)phthalocyanine (MT4(dpa)Pc) complexes as potential cheap alternatives to platinum. The obtained complexes were electropolymerized into thin films using cyclic voltammetry (CV). These polymer films may possess improved OR capabilities due to the nature of the diphenylamine substituent.
James is (another!) Chemical Engineering student from MSU. He is part of the MSU Regional champion Chem-E-Car team and will join Brian and Mark at the Chem-E-Car competition in San Francisco this November. Good luck to them and thank you to James for his hard work.
Brian helped us this summer by developing better prototypes for redox flow batteries. His designs aided understanding of the reaction inside the battery cell.
Design of a Highly Efficient and Cost Competitive Organic Redox Flow Battery; Brian Chiou, Thomas F. Guarr
Renewable energy technology is growing rapidly. However, renewable energy relies heavily on energy storage systems to balance fluctuating energy generation. The high manufacturing cost and limited life cycle of current commercial battery technology inhibits large scale grid storage application. This research project focuses on an organic flow battery with significantly lower manufacturing cost and minimal chemical degradation for longer cycle life.
Brian graduated this year with a Chemical Engineering degree from MSU. He is presently working for LG here in Holland. He is also continuing to further his research in the above subject. Thanks for your work, Brian.
Many thanks to Devinda for spending his summer with us synthesizing Bispyridine compounds.
Synthesis of Linear Bispyridines and Bispyridinium Compounds for Energy Storage Applications; Devinda Wijewardena and Dr. Thomas F. Guarr
Redox flow batteries store energy in electrolyte solutions that flow through the battery during charge and discharge cycles. They offer a very inexpensive and scalable energy storage capability that can be utilized in grid applications. Phenylene-bridged linear bispyridinium compounds possess useful electrochemical properties that could be used in redox flow batteries. Current redox flow batteries use electrolytes with compounds containing elements such as vanadium and bromine, which are both expensive and toxic. However, phenylene-bridged linear bispyridinium compounds could be synthesized organically through effective and efficient synthetic routes. One synthetic route involves a Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling using 1,4-phenylenebisboronic acid and 4-bromo-2,6-dimethylpyridine as starting materials and a palladium catalyst. Another route uses a Hantzsch pyridine synthesis and requires multiple steps. However, it is more cost-effective and environmentally friendly than the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. The bispyridine thus synthesized via either route was then alkylated to form the bispyridinium compound and characterized using LCMS, NMR, and cyclic voltammetry.
Devinda is a Chemical Engineering student at MSU from Sri Lanka. He has returned to the other side of the earth for a visit before returning to school and we wish him another great year at MSU.